An autonomous transaction is a transaction that can be started within the context of another transaction (parent transaction), but is independent of it. The autonomous transaction can be committed or rolled back regardless of the state of the parent transaction.
Sometimes it becomes necessary to update a table irrespective of the current status of transaction. An example is writing to the logs table. Consider the following scenario in which statement2 has to be executed irrespective of rollback or commit:
Statement1; Statement2; Statement3; Condition if true commit; else rollback;In such a scenario, autonomous transactions are very useful. The statement2 can be put under a separate PL/SQL block and that (block) may be referred here.
Here is how to do it. (This tip was tested on Oracle 8i and I am sure that it will work in 9i also.)
- Define the PL/SQL block as an autonomous transaction by using- PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION
- Execute SQL
- Commit or rollback
- Call / use this block in another transaction
A procedure can be written which may be called from other procedures. It takes a varchar2 data as argument. Procedure definition is as follows:
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE Insertlogs(logmsg IN VARCHAR2) IS PRAGMA autonomous_transaction; tmpVar NUMBER; BEGIN tmpVar := 0; INSERT INTO LOGS123(LOGMESSAGE) VALUES(logmsg); COMMIT; EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN NULL; WHEN OTHERS THEN NULL; END; /Procedure Insertlogs can be called from any other procedure as follows:
Insertlogs('this is autonomous logs');
Bruce S. writes: The tip is a good start. I've been using this method ever since 8i came out. But I think the concept needs to be extended. I suggest that a timestamp be used at the very least. I use sysdate for 8i and systimestamp for 9i. Other suggestions are to add a module_name and severity_level. This would make the log much more useful and easy to search by time, application, or severity level.
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