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Using foreign key to associate managers and employees

I want to create a generic Employee table with managers and employees present in different rows of the same table. Can I apply a foreign key constraint to ensure that if a manager leaves and is replaced by another person, all the people reporting to that manager will be pointed to the new manager? Does a constraint of this type work on a self-referential table, and do I need to make updates to it in a particular order?

No, a foreign key constraint won't help with this kind of processing. You probably want to use a trigger and/or application code to handle this kind of processing. The problem lies in how the business rules are stated and applied, so I can't give you a good example without understanding exactly what you need your system to do.

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