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Taking hot, cold and RMAN backups on Linux and Windows

How do I take the hot backup, cold backup and RMAN backup on Linux and Windows servers?

How do I take the hot backup, cold backup and RMAN backup on Linux and Windows servers? Please tell me the exact steps.
The nice thing about RMAN is that you do not need different steps for different platforms. A hot backup is as simple (in Oracle 9i and above) as running the following command in RMAN:

backup database;

The above command assumes that you have configured default channels with the CONFIGURE command. To perform a cold backup, you will want to shut down the database, back it up and then start the database. My old RMAN script to perform a cold backup looks like the following:

run {
shutdown immediate
startup mount
allocate channel t1 type 'SBT_TAPE'
backup full format "%d_FULL_%U" (database) ; 
sql 'alter database open'; release channel t1; }

In the above, I shut down the database and start it in MOUNT mode. I then allocate a channel and back up the database. Once done, I open the database and release the channel.

My script was originally written for Oracle 8i and I have not used it since that version. Oracle 9i and 10g have newer options (such as specifying default channels) so your script may look a little different.

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