For a nice overview of SQL and ANSI, see Intro To SQL.
As the link above says, vendors want to differentiate themselves so they add features unique to themselves. In this case, it is the addition of SQL-callable functions.
I don't know of a source that says for function "x" in SQL Server call function "y" in Oracle. The best site I've seen that does that is now very old (Oracle v7.3) but it might be a good place to start. Also, all of Oracle's documentation is free on an Oracle web site. You may have to sign up for a free membership.
If you have a specific question about using one of the functions or about using PL/SQL, be sure to send it this way!
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