What are the differences between SQL Server and Oracle in terms of security features?
I can only answer about Oracle 8i since I do not have too much experience with SQL Server. Hopefully, your question can be posed to a SQL Server expert.
Oracle is a very robust RDBMS when it comes to security. Most security scenarios can be handled by assigning appropriate database privileges to selected users. Database roles can facilitate administering security. If that is not enough, one can use database triggers to implement more complex security. Oracle 8i introduced the Virtual Private Database (VPD), or Fine-Grained Access Control (FGAC) to the Oracle community. FGAC lets you restrict access not only to a table, but to specific rows within that table. So an employee can only see his payroll information, for example. Oracle 9i extended FGAC with even more features. If all of that is still not enough for you, Oracle Advanced Security provides some of the more robust database security measures available.
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