Not really "backdoors" but, by default, Oracle does designate one OS group as the OSDBA group. Members of that OS group are allowed to connect to the database locally using "connect / as sysdba". On Windows, this group is ORA_DBA and on Unix this group is named "dba" by default. During a custom installation, it is possible to change this group to some other group name on Unix systems, but that is rarely done.
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