During a normal shutdown, it's my understanding that Oracle will close all sessions (see modes below), close the database, unmount the data files and then shut down the instance in two steps, first issuing a "free" the SGA RAM heap and finally, terminating the background processes.
Oracle has three shutdown modes:
- Normal - waits for in-flight work to complete
- Immediate - terminates all sessions and does a rollback on all uncommitted transactions
- Abort - aborts all sessions, leaving current DML in need of rollback, deallocates the SGA and terminates the background processes.
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