There are many aspects of database design. This is such a broad topic that it is hard to do it any justice in this venue. As an overview, I give you the following:
- When creating your schema, your table should represent real-world entities. The columns of that table are attributes of the entity.
- Your schema should be in Third Normal Form (3NF) to stop data anomolies from occuring.
- The application's SQL statements and stored procedures should be tuned for optimal performance.
- The physical design of the database should take into account security and performance.
I'm sorry that I cannot go much further in answering your question. This is a pretty broad topic.
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