1. Sign on to SQL*Plus as SYSDBA.
2. SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
3. Exit SQL*Plus
4. Using OS commands, copy your database datafiles, online redo logs, and control files to your backup location. You might want to query V$DATAFILE, V$LOGFILE, and V$CONTROLFILE before step 2 if you do not know the location of your database files.
5. Sign on to SQL*Plus as SYSDBA.
Your backup is complete. There are many more options for your backup needs. And backup is nothing if you do not know how to recover your database. I would highly recommend reading your Oracle Backup documentation. Oracle Press also has a very good book titled Oracle Backup and Recovery Handbook by Velpuri and Adkoli that can help you.
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