How do I allocate shared pool size, db block size, db block buffers, log buffers and space for a tablespace?
How to configure all of the aspects of the System Global Area (SGA) is not an easy topic to discuss. At least not in this forum. The first thing to do is to make an educated guess as to what you think these parameters need to be. Then, using performance tuning guidelines, you check out your database's performance and adjust these parameters accordingly. Oracle does give some suggestions in a default INIT.ORA file depending on whether you think your database will be small, medium, or large. If you feel you can not make an educated guess for these parameters, feel free to start with Oracle's suggestions.
As for the db_block_size parameter. A good rule of thumb is that for OLTP databases, use an 8K block size. For datawarehouses, use the largest block size your OS will support.
Your tablespaces need to be sized to hold all of your data, including expected growth. This can be determined mostly by loading a sample subset of data and then extrapolating a good tablespace size.
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