Oracle backup and recovery scripts, part II: Hot backup under Unix

This tip includes various scripts to perform hot backups of an Oracle database under the Unix environment.

This is the second of a series of excerpts from "Oracle DBA automation scripts" by Rajendra Gutta. Click for part one on cold backup under Unix and part three on backup and recovery under Windows NT. You can purchase the book here.

Hot Backup

Listing 3.4 provides the script to perform the hot backup of a database under the Unix environment. The hot backup script takes two input parameters—SID and OWNER. SID is the instance to be backed up, and OWNER is the Unix account under which Oracle is running.

Figure 3.4 shows the functionality of the hot backup program. Each box represents a corresponding function in the program:

Listing 3.4 hotbackup_ux

##################################################################### 
# PROGRAM NAME:    hotbackup_ux

# PURPOSE:    This utility will perform a warm backup of
# the database
# USAGE:    $hotbackup_ux SID OWNER

# INPUT PARAMETERS: SID(Instance name), OWNER(Owner of instance)
#####################################################################


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_verify(): Verify that database is online
#:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 

funct_verify(){
 STATUS=´ps -fu ${ORA_OWNER} |grep -v grep| grep ora_pmon_${ORA_SID}´
  funct_chk_ux_cmd_stat "Database is down for given SID($ORA_SID),
Owner($ORA_OWNER). Can't perform hotbackup "
} 

#:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_dblogmode(): Check DB log mode
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
funct_chk_dblogmode(){
STATUS=´${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s <<EOF
/ as sysdba
set heading off  feedback off
select log_mode from v\\$database;
exit
EOF´

if [ $STATUS = "NOARCHIVELOG" ]; then
  echo "´date´" |tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
  echo "HOTBACKUP_FAIL: $ORA_SID is in NOARCHIVELOG mode. Can't perform 
hotbackup " |tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
  exit 1
fi
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_control_backup(): Backup control file
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_control_backup(){
echo "Begin backup of controlfile and trace to trace file" >>${BACKUPLOGFILE}
${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s <<EOF
/ as sysdba
set heading off  feedback off
alter database backup controlfile to '${CONTROLFILE_DIR}/backup_control.ctl';
alter database backup controlfile to trace;
exit
EOF

# Backup trace of control file
CONTROL=´ls -t ${udump_dest}/*.trc |head -1´
if [ ! -z "$CONTROL" ]; then
 grep 'CONTROL' ${CONTROL} 1> /dev/null
 if test $? -eq 0; then
   cp ${CONTROL} ${CONTROLFILE_DIR}/backup_control.sql
 fi
fi 

# Prepare restore file for control file
echo "###### Control File  " >> ${RESTOREFILE}
echo "# Use your own discretion to copy control file, not advised unless 
required..." >> ${RESTOREFILE}
echo " End of backup of control file" >> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_archivelog_backup(): Backup archivelog files
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_archivelog_backup(){
echo "Begin backup of archived redo logs" >> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
#Switch logs to flush current redo log to archived redo before back up
${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s <<EOF
/ as sysdba
set heading off  feedback off
alter system switch logfile;
alter system archive log stop;  
exit
EOF

# This gets the redo sequence number that is being archived
# and remove this from the list of files to be backed up
ARCSEQ=´${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s <<EOF
/ as sysdba
set heading off  feedback off
select min(sequence#) from v\\$log
where archived='NO';
exit
EOF´
#Get current list of archived redo log files
ARCLOG_FILES=´ls ${log_arch_dest}/*|grep -v $ARCSEQ´

${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s <<EOF
/ as sysdba
set heading off  feedback off
alter system archive log start;  
exit
EOF

#Prepare restore file for arc log files 
echo "##### Archive Log Files" >> ${RESTOREFILE}
for arc_file in ´echo $ARCLOG_FILES´
do
   echo cp -p ${ARCLOG_DIR}/´echo $arc_file|awk -F"/" '{print $NF}'´ 
$arc_file >> ${RESTOREFILE}
done

#Copy arc log files to backup location
#remove the archived redo logs from the log_archive_dest if copy is successful
cp -p ${ARCLOG_FILES} ${ARCLOG_DIR}
if [ $? = 0 ]; then
  rm ${ARCLOG_FILES}
else
  echo "´date´" |tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
  echo "HOTBACKUP_FAIL:  Failed to copy Archive log files" |
tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
  exit 1
fi
echo "End backup of archived redo logs" >> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_init_backup(): Backup init.ora file
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_init_backup(){

#Copy current init<SID>.ora file to backup directory
echo " Copying current init${ORA_SID}.ora file" >> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
cp -p ${init_file} ${INITFILE_DIR}/init${ORA_SID}.ora
funct_chk_ux_cmd_stat "Failed to copy init.ora file to backup location"

# Prepare restore file for init.ora
echo "############# Parameter Files" >> ${RESTOREFILE}
echo cp -p ${INITFILE_DIR}/init${ORA_SID}.ora ${init_file} >> ${RESTOREFILE}
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_temp_backup(): Prepre SQL for temp files
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_temp_backup(){
echo "############# Recreate the following Temporary Files" >> ${RESTOREFILE}
${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s <<EOF >> ${RESTOREFILE}
/ as sysdba
set heading off  feedback off
select 'alter tablespace '||tablespace_name||' add tempfile '||''||
file_name||''||' reuse'||';'
from dba_temp_files;
exit
EOF
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
#funct_hot_backup():  Backup datafiles 
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_hot_backup(){

# Get the list of tablespaces
echo "Building tablespace list " >> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
tablespace_list=´${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s <<EOF
/ as sysdba
set heading off  feedback off
select distinct tablespace_name from dba_data_files
order by tablespace_name;
exit
EOF´

echo "##### DATE:" ´date´ > ${RESTOREFILE}
echo "####Data Files(Please restore only corrupted files)" >> ${RESTOREFILE}
for tblspace in ´echo $tablespace_list´
do
# Get the datafiles for the current tablespace
datafile_list=´${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s <<EOF 
/ as sysdba
set heading off  feedback off
select file_name from dba_data_files
where tablespace_name = '${tblspace}';
exit
EOF´

echo " Beginning back up of tablespace ${tblspace}..." >> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s <<EOF 
/ as sysdba
set heading off  feedback off
alter tablespace ${tblspace} begin backup;
exit
EOF
 
# Copy datafiles of current tablespace
for datafile in ´echo $datafile_list´
do
   echo "Copying datafile ${datafile}..." >> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
   # The next command prepares restore file
   echo cp -p ${DATAFILE_DIR}/´echo $datafile|awk -F"/" '{print $NF}'´
 $datafile >> ${RESTOREFILE}
   cp -p ${datafile} ${DATAFILE_DIR}
   if [ $? != 0 ]; then
      echo "´date´" |tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
      echo "HOTBACKUP_FAIL: Failed to copy file to backup location "|
 tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}

      # Ending the tablespace backup before exiting
      ´${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s <<EOF 
      / as sysdba
      set heading off  feedback off 
      alter tablespace ${tblspace} end backup;
      exit
      EOF´

      exit 1
   fi
done

${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s <<EOF 
/ as sysdba
set heading off  feedback off
alter tablespace ${tblspace} end backup;
exit
EOF
 echo " Ending back up of tablespace ${tblspace}.." >> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
done
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_parm(): Check for input parameters
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_chk_parm() {
if [ ${NARG} -ne 2 ]; then
   echo "HOTBACKUP_FAIL: ${ORA_SID}, Not enough arguments passed"
   exit 1
fi
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_bkup_dir(): Create backup directories if not already existing
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_chk_bkup_dir() {

 RESTOREFILE_DIR="${BACKUPDIR}/restorefile_dir"
 BACKUPLOG_DIR="${BACKUPDIR}/backuplog_dir"
 DATAFILE_DIR="${BACKUPDIR}/datafile_dir"
 CONTROLFILE_DIR="${BACKUPDIR}/controlfile_dir"
 REDOLOG_DIR="${BACKUPDIR}/redolog_dir"
 ARCLOG_DIR="${BACKUPDIR}/arclog_dir"
 INITFILE_DIR="${BACKUPDIR}/initfile_dir"

 BACKUPLOGFILE="${BACKUPLOG_DIR}/backup_log_${ORA_SID}"
 RESTOREFILE="${RESTOREFILE_DIR}/restorefile_${ORA_SID}"
 LOGFILE="${LOGDIR}/${ORA_SID}.log"

 if [ ! -d ${RESTOREFILE_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${RESTOREFILE_DIR}; fi
 if [ ! -d ${BACKUPLOG_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${BACKUPLOG_DIR}; fi
 if [ ! -d ${DATAFILE_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${DATAFILE_DIR}; fi
 if [ ! -d ${CONTROLFILE_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${CONTROLFILE_DIR}; fi
 if [ ! -d ${REDOLOG_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${REDOLOG_DIR}; fi
 if [ ! -d ${ARCLOG_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${ARCLOG_DIR}; fi
 if [ ! -d ${INITFILE_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${INITFILE_DIR}; fi

 if [ ! -d ${DYN_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${DYN_DIR}; fi
 if [ ! -d ${LOGDIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${LOGDIR}; fi

# Remove old backup
rm -f ${RESTOREFILE_DIR}/*
rm -f ${BACKUPLOG_DIR}/*
rm -f ${DATAFILE_DIR}/*
rm -f ${CONTROLFILE_DIR}/*
rm -f ${REDOLOG_DIR}/*
rm -f ${ARCLOG_DIR}/*
rm -f ${INITFILE_DIR}/*

echo "${JOBNAME}: hotbackup of ${ORA_SID} begun on ´date +\"%c\"´" > 
${BACKUPLOGFILE}
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_get_vars(): Get environment variables
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_get_vars(){

ORA_HOME=´sed /#/d ${ORATABDIR}|grep -i ${ORA_SID}|nawk -F ":" '{print $2}'´
ORA_BASE=´echo ${ORA_HOME}|nawk -F "/" '{for (i=2; i<=NF-2; i++) 
print "/"$i}'´
ORACLE_BASE=´echo $ORA_BASE|tr -d " "´
init_file=$ORA_HOME/dbs/init$ORA_SID.ora
#log_arch_dest1=´sed /#/d $init_file|grep -i log_archive_dest|
nawk -F "=" '{print $2}'´
#log_arch_dest=´echo $log_arch_dest1|tr -d "'"|tr -d '"'´

udump_dest=´${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s <<EOF
/ as sysdba
set heading off  feedback off
select value from v\\$parameter
where name='user_dump_dest';
exit
EOF´


if [ x$ORA_HOME = 'x' ]; then
  echo "HOTBACKUP_FAIL: can't get ORACLE_HOME from oratab file for $ORA_SID"
| tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
  exit 1
fi

if [ ! -f $init_file ]; then
  echo "HOTBACKUP_FAIL: init$ORA_SID.ora does not exist in ORACLE_HOME/dbs"
 | tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
  exit 1
fi

 if [ x$log_arch_dest = 'x' -o x$udump_dest = 'x' ]; then
  echo "HOTBACKUP_FAIL: user_dump_dest or log_archive_dest not defined " 
| tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
  exit 1
 fi

ORACLE_HOME=${ORA_HOME}; export ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_SID=${ORA_SID}; export ORACLE_SID
} 

#:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_ux_cmd_stat(): Check the exit status of Unix command
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
funct_chk_ux_cmd_stat() {
 if [ $? != 0 ]; then
      echo "´date´" |tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
      echo "HOTBACKUP_FAIL:${1} "|tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
      exit 1
 fi
} 

############################################################
#            MAIN                
############################################################

NARG=$#
ORA_SID=$1
ORA_OWNER=$2

# Set environment variables
BACKUPDIR="/u02/${ORA_SID}/hot"
ORATABDIR=/etc/oratab
TOOLS="/u01/oracomn/admin/my_dba"
log_arch_dest="/export/home/orcl/arch"

DYN_DIR="${TOOLS}/DYN_FILES"    
LOGDIR="${TOOLS}/localog"
JOBNAME="dbhotbackup"

echo " Starting hotbackup of .... ${ORA_SID}" 

    funct_chk_parm
    funct_chk_bkup_dir
    funct_get_vars
    funct_verify
    funct_chk_dblogmode
    funct_hot_backup
    funct_temp_backup
    funct_control_backup
    funct_archivelog_backup
    funct_init_backup

echo "${ORA_SID}, hotbackup Completed successfully on ´date +\"%c\"´" |
tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}

######## END MAIN #########################

Hot Backup Script under Unix Checklist

  • In the main function, set the correct values for BACKUPDIR, ORATABDIR, TOOLS, and log_arch_dest variables highlighted in the script. The default location of ORATABDIR is different for each flavor of Unix.

  • Check for existence of the SID instance in the oratab file. If not already there, you must add the instance.

  • Check for the existence of the initSID.ora file in the ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory. If it is in a different location, you must create a soft link to the ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory.

Pass SID and OWNER as parameters to the program:

  • main() BACKUPDIR defines the backup location. ORATABDIR defines the oratab file location. oratab files maintain the list of instances and their home directories on the machine. This file is created by default when Oracle is installed. If it is not there, you must create one. OWNER is the owner of the Oracle software directories.

  • funct_get_vars() Make sure that the USER_DUMP_DEST parameter is set correctly in Init.ora file. I was reluctant to get LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST from the Init.ora file because there are some changes between Oracle 7 and 8 in the way the archive destination is defined. There are a variety of ways that you can define log_archive_dest based on how many destinations you are using. Consequently, I have given the option to define log_archive_dest in main function.

  • funct_temp_backup() Oracle 7 and Oracle 8 support permanent temporary tablespaces (created with create tablespce tablespace_name ... temporary). Apart from this, Oracle 8I has new features to create temporary tablespaces that do not need back up (created with create tablespace temporary...). Data in these temporary tablespaces is session-specific and gets deleted as soon as the session is disconnected. Because of the nature of these temporary tablespaces, you do not need to back them up; in the case of a restore, you can just add the data file for these temporary tablespaces. The files for these temporary tablespaces are listed under the dba_temp_files data dictionary view.

  • funct_control_backup() In addition to taking backup of control file, this function also backs up the trace of the control file. The trace of the control file will be useful to examine the structure of the database. This is the single most important piece of information that you need to perform a good recovery, especially if the database has hundreds of files.

  • funct_chk_bkup_dir() This function creates backup directories for data, control, redo log, archivelog, init files, restore files, and backup log files.

Restore file

The restore file for hot backup looks similar to cold backup. Please refer to the explanation under the heading restore file for cold backup.

Hot Backup Troubleshooting and Status Check

The important thing here is that the backup log file defined by (BACKUPLOGFILE) contains detailed information about each step of the backup process. This is a very good place to start investigating why a backup has failed or for related errors. This file will also have the start and end time of the backup.

A single line about the success or failure of a backup is appended to the SID.log file every time a backup is performed. This file is located under the directory defined by the LOGDIR variable. This file also has the backup completion time. A separate file is created for each instance. This single file maintains the history of the performed backups, their status, and timing information. The messages for a hot backup are 'HOTBACKUP_FAIL', if the hot backup failed, and 'Hotbackup Completed successfully', if the backup completes successfully.

The following is an excerpt from the log file:

Tue Jul 18 16:48:46 EDT 2000
HOTBACKUP_FAIL: DEV, Not enough arguments passed

Export

The export program (see Listing 3.5) performs a full export of the database under Unix environment. The export script takes two input parameters—SID and OWNER. SID is the instance to be backed up, and OWNER is the Unix account under which Oracle is running. Figure 3.5 shows the functionality of the export and split export programs. Each box represents a corresponding function in the program.

Figure 3.5 Functions in export and split export scripts for Unix.

Listing 3.5 xport_ux

######################################################################
# PROGRAM NAME: xport_ux
# PURPOSE: Performs export of the database
# USAGE: $xport_ux SID OWNER
# INPUT PARAMETERS: SID(Instance name), OWNER(Owner of instance)

)
######################################################################


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_verify(): Verify that database is online       
#:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 

funct_verify(){
 STATUS=´ps -fu ${ORA_OWNER} |grep -v grep| grep ora_pmon_${ORA_SID}´
  funct_chk_unix_command_status "Database is down for given SID($ORA_SID),
Owner($ORA_OWNER). Can't perform export "
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_cleanup(): Cleanup interim files
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_cleanup() {
echo "Left for user convenience" > /dev/null
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_build_parfile(): This will create parameter file
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_build_parfile() {
# This line makes sure that it always creates a new parameter file
echo " " >${PARFILE}
echo "userid=system/manager">>${PARFILE}
# if you use connect string. see next line.
#userid=system/manager@${CON_STRING}
#echo "Owner=scott">>${PARFILE}
#echo "Tables=scott.T1">>${PARFILE}
echo "Full=Y">>${PARFILE}
#echo "Direct=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "Grants=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "Indexes=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "Rows=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "Constraints=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "Compress=N">>${PARFILE}
echo "Consistent=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "File=${FILE}">>${PARFILE}
echo "Log=${EXPORT_DIR}/${ORA_SID}.exp.log">>${PARFILE}
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_export(): Export the database
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_export() {
# Remove old export file
rm -f ${FILE}

${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/exp parfile=${PARFILE}
if [ $? != 0 ]; then
   echo ´date´ >> $LOGDIR/${ORA_SID}.log
   echo "EXPORT_FAIL: ${ORA_SID}, Export Failed" >> $LOGDIR/${ORA_SID}.log
   funct_cleanup
   exit 1
fi 
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_parm(): Check for input parameters
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_chk_parm() {
if [ ${NARG} -ne 2 ]; then
 echo "EXPORT_FAIL: ${ORA_SID}, Not enough arguments passed" 
 exit 1
fi
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_bkup_dir(): Create backup directories if not already exist
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_chk_bkup_dir() {
 EXPORT_DIR=${BACKUPDIR}
 if [ ! -d ${EXPORT_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${EXPORT_DIR}; fi
 if [ ! -d ${DYN_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${DYN_DIR}; fi
 if [ ! -d ${LOGDIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${LOGDIR}; fi
 
 FILE="${EXPORT_DIR}/${ORA_SID}.dmp"
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_get_vars(): Get environment variables
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_get_vars(){
ORA_HOME=´sed /#/d ${ORATABDIR}|grep -i ${ORA_SID}|nawk -F ":" '{print $2}'´
ORA_BASE=´echo ${ORA_HOME}|nawk -F "/" '{for (i=2; i<=NF-2; i++) 
print "/"$i}'´
ORACLE_BASE=´echo $ORA_BASE|tr -d " "´
ORACLE_HOME=${ORA_HOME}; export ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_SID=${ORA_SID}; export ORACLE_SID
#CON_STRING=${ORA_SID}.company.com
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_unix_command_status(): Check exit status of Unix command
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_chk_unix_command_status() {
  if [ $? != 0 ]; then
      echo "´date´" >> ${LOGDIR}/${ORA_SID}.log
      echo "EXPORT_FAIL: ${1} " >> ${LOGDIR}/${ORA_SID}.log
      exit 1
  fi
} 


######################################
#      MAIN
######################################


NARG=$#
ORA_SID=$1
ORA_OWNER=$2

# Set up the environment
BACKUPDIR="/u02/${ORA_SID}/export"
ORATABDIR=/etc/oratab 
TOOLS="/u01/oracomn/admin/my_dba"

DYN_DIR="${TOOLS}/DYN_FILES"
PARFILE="${DYN_DIR}/export.par" 
LOGDIR="${TOOLS}/localog"

  echo "... Now exporting .... ${ORA_SID}"

    funct_chk_parm
    funct_get_vars
    funct_verify
    funct_chk_bkup_dir
    funct_build_parfile
    funct_export
    funct_cleanup
    
  echo ´date´ >> $LOGDIR/${ORA_SID}.log
  echo "${ORA_SID}, export completed successfully" >> $LOGDIR/${ORA_SID}.log

####################### END MAIN ###############################

Export Script under Unix Checklist

  • In the main function, set the correct values for BACKUPDIR, ORATABDIR, and TOOLS variables highlighted in the export script. The default location of ORATABDIR is different for each flavor of Unix.

  • Check for existence of SID in the oratab file. If not already there, you must add the instance.

  • The funct_build_parfile() function builds the parameter file. By default, it performs a full export. You can modify the parameters to perform a user- or table-level export.

Pass SID and OWNER as parameters to the program:

  • funct_build_parfile() Builds the export.par parameter file dynamically, based on the information provided in this function. This function is configured for a full export of the database. To perform a different type of export (user- or table-level), set the correct parameters.

  • funct_cleanup() Removes the interim files.

Export Troubleshooting and Status Check

The 'Log' parameter value set in the parameter file will have detailed information about the status of export. This is a very good place to start investigating why an export has failed or for related errors.

A single line about the success or failure of export is appended to SID.log file every time an export is performed. This file is located under the directory defined by the LOGDIR variable. This file also has the backup completion time. A separate file is created for each instance. This single file maintains the history of performed backups, their status, and timing information. The messages for an export are 'EXPORT_FAIL', if the export failed, and 'Export Completed successfully', if the export completes successfully.

The following is an excerpt from a log file:

Tue Apr 8 16:07:12 EST 2000
DEV , export completed successfully

Split Export

The split export program (see Listing 3.6) performs an export of the database. Additionally, if the export file is larger than 2GB, the script compresses the export file and splits into multiple files to overcome the export limitation of a 2GB file system size. This is the only way to split the export file prior to Oracle 8i. New features in 8I allow you to split the export file into multiple files, but it does not compress the files on-the-fly to save space. The script uses the Unix commands split and compress to perform splitting and compressing of the files. The functions of the script are explained in Figure 3.5.

The split export script takes two input parameters—SID and OWNER. SID is the instance to be backed up, and OWNER is the Unix account under which Oracle is running.

Export New Features in 8i

In 8i, Oracle introduced two new export parameters called FILESIZE and QUERY. FILESIZE specifies the maximum file size of each dump file. This overcomes the 2GB file system limitations of export command operating systems. By using the QUERY parameter, you can export the subset of a table data. During an import, when using split export files, you have to specify the same FILESIZE limit.

Listing 3.6 splitZxport_ux

######################################################################
# PROGRAM NAME: splitZxport_ux
#
# PURPOSE: Performs export of the database 
#       Compresses the export file on the fly while splitting.
#      Useful if the size of export file goes beyond 2GB
# USAGE: $splitZxport_ux SID OWNER
# INPUT PARAMETERS: SID(Instance name), OWNER(Owner of instance)


######################################################################


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_verify(): Verify that database is online       
#:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 

funct_verify(){
 STATUS=´ps -fu ${ORA_OWNER} |grep -v grep| grep ora_pmon_${ORA_SID}´
  funct_chk_unix_command_status "Database is down for given SID($ORA_SID),
Owner($ORA_OWNER). Can't perform export "
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_cleanup(): Cleanup interim files
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_cleanup() {
rm –f ${PIPE_DEVICE}
rm –f ${SPLIT_PIPE_DEVICE}
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_splitcompress_pipe(): Creates pipe for compressing and 
splitting of file
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_splitcompress_pipe() {
# Creates pipe for compressing
if [ ! -r ${PIPE_DEVICE} ]; then     
  /etc/mknod ${PIPE_DEVICE} p
fi

#Creates pipe for splitting 
if [ ! -r ${SPLIT_PIPE_DEVICE} ]; then     
   /etc/mknod ${SPLIT_PIPE_DEVICE} p
fi

# Splits the file for every 500MB
# As it splits it adds aa,bb,cc ... zz to the name
nohup split -b1000m - ${ZFILE} < ${SPLIT_PIPE_DEVICE} & 
nohup compress < ${PIPE_DEVICE} >${SPLIT_PIPE_DEVICE} & 
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_build_parfile(): Creates parameter file
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_build_parfile() {
# This line makes sure that it always creates a new parameter file
echo " " >${PARFILE}
echo "userid=system/manager">>${PARFILE}
echo "Full=Y">>${PARFILE}
#echo "tables=scott.t1">>${PARFILE}
echo "Grants=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "Indexes=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "Rows=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "Constraints=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "Compress=N">>${PARFILE}
echo "Consistent=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "File=${PIPE_DEVICE}">>${PARFILE}
echo "Log=${EXPORT_DIR}/${ORA_SID}.exp.log">>${PARFILE}
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_export(): Export the database
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_export() {
# Remove old export file
rm -f ${ZFILE}

${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/exp parfile=${PARFILE}
if [ $? != 0 ]; then
   echo ´date´ >> $LOGDIR/${ORA_SID}.log
   echo "EXPORT_FAIL: ${ORA_SID}, Export Failed" >> $LOGDIR/${ORA_SID}.log
   funct_cleanup
   exit 1
fi 
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_parm(): Check for input parameters
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_chk_parm() {
if [ ${NARG} -ne 2 ]; then
 echo "EXPORT_FAIL: ${ORA_SID}, Not enough arguments passed"
 exit 1
fi
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_bkup_dir(): Create backup directories if not already existing
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_chk_bkup_dir() {
 EXPORT_DIR=${BACKUPDIR}
 if [ ! -d ${EXPORT_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${EXPORT_DIR}; fi
 if [ ! -d ${DYN_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${DYN_DIR}; fi
 if [ ! -d ${LOGDIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${LOGDIR}; fi
 ZFILE="${EXPORT_DIR}/${ORA_SID}.dmp.Z"
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_get_vars(): Get environment variables
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_get_vars(){
ORA_HOME=´sed /#/d ${ORATABDIR}|grep -i ${ORA_SID}|nawk -F ":" '{print $2}'´
ORA_BASE=´echo ${ORA_HOME}|nawk -F "/" '{for (i=2; i<=NF-2; i++) 
print "/"$i}'´
ORACLE_BASE=´echo $ORA_BASE|tr -d " "´
ORACLE_HOME=${ORA_HOME}; export ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_SID=${ORA_SID}; export ORACLE_SID
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_unix_command_status(): Check exit status of Unix command
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_chk_unix_command_status() {
  if [ $? != 0 ]; then
      echo "´date´" >> ${LOGDIR}/${ORA_SID}.log
      echo "EXPORT_FAIL: ${1} " >> ${LOGDIR}/${ORA_SID}.log
      exit 1
  fi
} 

#######################################
##      MAIN
#######################################

NARG=$#
ORA_SID=$1
ORA_OWNER=$2

# Set up environment
BACKUPDIR="/u02/${ORA_SID}/export"
ORATABDIR=/etc/oratab 
TOOLS="/u01/oracomn/admin/my_dba"

DYN_DIR="${TOOLS}/DYN_FILES"
PARFILE="${DYN_DIR}/export.par" 
LOGDIR="${TOOLS}/localog"

PIPE_DEVICE="/tmp/export_${ORA_SID}_pipe"
SPLIT_PIPE_DEVICE="/tmp/split_${ORA_SID}_pipe"

  echo "... Now exporting .... ${ORA_SID}"

    funct_chk_parm
    funct_get_vars
    funct_verify
    funct_chk_bkup_dir
    funct_splitcompress_pipe
    funct_build_parfile
    funct_export
    funct_cleanup
    
  echo ´date´ >> $LOGDIR/${ORA_SID}.log
  echo "${ORA_SID}, export completed successfully" >> $LOGDIR/${ORA_SID}.log

####################### END MAIN ###############################

Split Export Script under Unix Checklist

The checklist of things to verify before the splitZxport is run is the same as for the export program.

  • funct_splitcompress_pipe() This function creates two pipes—one for compressing and another for splitting. The export dump file is passed to the compress pipe for compression, and the output of the compress command is passed to the split command for the split operation. The output of split command is passed to a file. The split command splits the dump file into pieces of 1000MB. When the split operation occurs, it appends aa, bb, cc...zz to the name of the original file to maintain different names for individual pieces. compress and split are Unix commands.

  • funct_build_parfile() In building the parameter file, we pass the pipe name as a filename to the export command. The pipe acts as a medium to transfer output from one command to another.

Split Import

The split import program (see Listing 3.7) performs an import using the compressed split export dump files created by the splitZxport program. The script takes two input parameters—SID and OWNER. SID is the instance to be backed up, and OWNER is the Unix account under which Oracle is running.

Listing 3.7 splitZmport_ux

######################################################################
# PROGRAM NAME: splitZmport_ux

# PURPOSE: Performs import of the database using export files created by 
#splitZxport program. Uncompresses the dump file on the fly while desplitting.

# USAGE: $splitZmport_ux SID OWNER
# INPUT PARAMETERS: SID(Instance name), OWNER(Owner of instance)


######################################################################


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_verify(): Verify that database is online       
#:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 

funct_verify(){
 STATUS=´ps -fu ${ORA_OWNER} |grep -v grep| grep ora_pmon_${ORA_SID}´
  funct_chk_unix_command_status "Database is down for given SID($ORA_SID),
Owner($ORA_OWNER). Can't perform impot"
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_cleanup(): Cleanup interim files
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_cleanup() {
rm –f ${PIPE_DEVICE}
rm –f ${SPLIT_PIPE_DEVICE}
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_desplitcompress_pipe(): Creates pipe for uncompressing and 
desplitting of file
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_desplitcompress_pipe() {
# Creates pipe for uncompressing
if [ ! -r ${PIPE_DEVICE} ]; then     
  /etc/mknod ${PIPE_DEVICE} p
fi

#Creates pipe for desplitting 
if [ ! -r ${SPLIT_PIPE_DEVICE} ]; then
   /etc/mknod ${SPLIT_PIPE_DEVICE} p
fi

nohup cat ${ZFILES} > ${SPLIT_PIPE_DEVICE} & 
sleep 5
nohup uncompress < ${SPLIT_PIPE_DEVICE} >${PIPE_DEVICE} & 
sleep 30
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_build_parfile(): Creates parameter file
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_build_parfile() {
# This line makes sure that it always creates a new parameter file
echo " " >${PARFILE}
echo "userid=system/manager">>${PARFILE}
#echo "indexfile=${BACKUPDIR}/${ORA_SID}.ddl">>${PARFILE}
#echo "Owner=scott">>${PARFILE}
#echo "Fromuser=kishan">>${PARFILE}
#echo "Touser=aravind">>${PARFILE}
#echo "Tables=T1,T2,t3,t4">>${PARFILE}
echo "Full=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "Ignore=Y">>${PARFILE}
echo "Commit=y">>${PARFILE}
echo "File=${PIPE_DEVICE}">>${PARFILE}
echo "Log=${BACKUPDIR}/${ORA_SID}.imp.log">>${PARFILE}
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_import(): Import the database
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_import() {
${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/imp parfile=${PARFILE}
if [ $? != 0 ]; then
   echo ´date´ >> $LOGDIR/${ORA_SID}.log
   echo "IMPORT_FAIL: ${ORA_SID}, Import Failed" >> $LOGDIR/${ORA_SID}.log
   funct_cleanup
   exit 1
fi 
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_parm(): Check for input parameters
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_chk_parm() {
if [ ${NARG} -ne 2 ]; then
 echo "IMPORT_FAIL: ${ORA_SID}, Not enough arguments passed" 
 exit 1
fi
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_bkup_dir(): Check for backup directories
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_chk_bkup_dir() {
  if [ ! -d ${DYN_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${DYN_DIR}; fi
  if [ ! -d ${LOGDIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${LOGDIR}; fi
}


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_get_vars(): Get environment variables
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_get_vars(){
ORA_HOME=´sed /#/d ${ORATABDIR}|grep -i ${ORA_SID}|nawk -F ":" '{print $2}'´
ORA_BASE=´echo ${ORA_HOME}|nawk -F "/" '{for (i=2; i<=NF-2; i++) 
print "/"$i}'´
ORACLE_BASE=´echo $ORA_BASE|tr -d " "´
ORACLE_HOME=${ORA_HOME}; export ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_SID=${ORA_SID}; export ORACLE_SID
} 


#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
# funct_chk_unix_command_status(): Check exit status of Unix command
#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funct_chk_unix_command_status() {
  if [ $? != 0 ]; then
      echo "´date´" >> ${LOGDIR}/${ORA_SID}.log
      echo "IMPORT_FAIL: ${1} " >> ${LOGDIR}/${ORA_SID}.log
      exit 1
  fi
} 


#######################################
##      MAIN
#######################################

NARG=$#
ORA_SID=$1
ORA_OWNER=$2

# Set up environment
BACKUPDIR="/u02/${ORA_SID}/export"
ORATABDIR=/etc/oratab 
TOOLS="/u01/oracomn/admin/my_dba"
# List all split files in ZFILES variable
#ZFILES=´echo ${BACKUPDIR}/file.dmp.Z??|sort´
ZFILES="${BACKUPDIR}/file.dmp.Zaa ${BACKUPDIR}/file.dmp.Zab" 

DYN_DIR="${TOOLS}/DYN_FILES"
PARFILE="${DYN_DIR}/import.par" 
LOGDIR="${TOOLS}/localog"

PIPE_DEVICE="/tmp/import_${ORA_SID}_pipe"
SPLIT_PIPE_DEVICE="/tmp/split_${ORA_SID}_pipe"
NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8ISO8859P1;export NLS_LANG

  echo "... Now importing .... ${ORA_SID}"

    funct_chk_parm
    funct_get_vars
    funct_verify
    funct_chk_bkup_dir
    funct_desplitcompress_pipe
    funct_build_parfile
    funct_import
    funct_cleanup
    
  echo ´date´ >> $LOGDIR/${ORA_SID}.log
  echo "${ORA_SID}, import completed successfully" >> $LOGDIR/${ORA_SID}.log

####################### END MAIN ###############################

SplitImport Script under Unix Checklist

  • In the main() function, set the correct values for the BACKUPDIR, ORATABDIR, and TOOLS variables highlighted in the import script. The default location of ORATABDIR is different for each flavor of Unix.

  • Check for the existence of the SID in the oratab file. If not already there, you must add the instance.

  • List all split filenames in the ZFILES variable in the main() function.

  • The funct_build_parfile() function builds the parameter file. By default, it performs a full import. You can modify the settings to perform a user or table import.

Pass SID and OWNER as parameters to the program:

  • funct_desplitcompress_pipe() The only trick here is that we need to split and uncompress the files before we use them as input to import command. That is accomplished by creating two pipes. Here, we use the cat command to send output from split files to the split pipe device. The split pipe device is passed to the uncompress command. The output from the uncompress command is sent to the Oracle import command. cat and uncompress are Unix commands. Everything else is the same as a regular import.

  • Oracle Software Backup

    This section discusses backing up the software directories of Oracle. We have already discussed how to back up the database. Backing up software is also a very important part of a backup strategy. The software might not need to be backed up as often as the database because it does not change quite as often. But as you upgrade, or before you apply any patches to existing software, it is important to make a backup copy of it to avoid getting into trouble.

    Listing 3.8 contains the script to perform a backup of Oracle software. The script takes two input parameters—SID and OWNER. SID is the instance to be backed up, and OWNER is the Unix account under which Oracle is running.

    Listing 3.8 OraSoftware_ux

    #####################################################################
    # PROGRAM NAME: OraSoftware_ux
    
    # PURPOSE: Backup ORACLE_HOME & ORACLE_BASE 
    # USAGE: $OraSoftware_ux SID OWNER
    # INPUT PARAMETERS: SID(Instance name), OWNER(Owner of instance)
    
    
    #####################################################################
    
    
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    # funct_verify_shutdown(): Verify that database is down
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    
    funct_verify_shutdown(){
     STATUS=´ps -fu ${ORA_OWNER} |grep -v grep| grep ora_pmon_${ORA_SID}´
    if [ $? = 0 ]; then
      echo "´date´" >> ${LOGFILE}
      echo "SOFTWAREBACKUP_FAIL: ${ORA_SID}, Database is up, can't do software
     backup if the database is online." |tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> 
    ${LOGFILE}
      exit 1
    fi
    }
    
    
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    # funct_shutdown_i(): Shutdown database in Immediate mode
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    
    funct_shutdown_i(){
    ${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s << EOF
    / as sysdba
    shutdown immediate;
    exit
    EOF
    } 
    
    
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    # funct_startup_n(): Startup database in normal mode
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    
    funct_startup_n(){
    ${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/sqlplus -s << EOF
    / as sysdba
    startup; 
    exit
    EOF
    } 
    
    
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    # funct_software_bkup(): Backup software
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    
    funct_software_bkup(){
    
    echo "tarring ${ORA_HOME}" >> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
    echo "tarring ${ORA_BASE}" >> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
    
    nohup tar cvlpf - ${ORA_HOME} | compress > ${ORAHOMEFILE} 2> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
    nohup tar cvlpf - ${ORA_BASE} | compress > ${ORABASEFILE} 2> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
    
    #Prepare restore file
     echo "zcat ${ORAHOMEFILE}| tar xvlpf - ${ORA_HOME}" > ${RESTOREFILE} 
     echo "zcat ${ORABASEFILE}| tar xvlpf - ${ORA_BASE}" >> ${RESTOREFILE}
    }
    
    
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    # funct_chk_parm(): Check for input parameters
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    
    funct_chk_parm() {
    if [ ${NARG} -ne 2 ]; then
       echo "SOFTWAREBACKUP_FAIL: ${ORA_SID}, Not enough arguments passed"
       exit 1
    fi
    }
    
    
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    # funct_chk_bkup_dir(): Create backup directories if not already exist
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    
    funct_chk_bkup_dir() {
    
     RESTOREFILE_DIR="${BACKUPDIR}/restorefile_dir"
     BACKUPLOG_DIR="${BACKUPDIR}/backuplog_dir"
     SOFTWARE_DIR="${BACKUPDIR}/software_dir"
    
     BACKUPLOGFILE="${BACKUPLOG_DIR}/backup_log_${ORA_SID}"
     RESTOREFILE="${RESTOREFILE_DIR}/restorefile_${ORA_SID}"
     ORAHOMEFILE="${SOFTWARE_DIR}/orahome_${ORA_SID}.tar.Z"
     ORABASEFILE="${SOFTWARE_DIR}/orabase_${ORA_SID}.tar.Z"
     LOGFILE="${LOGDIR}/${ORA_SID}.log"
    
     if [ ! -d ${RESTOREFILE_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${RESTOREFILE_DIR}; fi
     if [ ! -d ${BACKUPLOG_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${BACKUPLOG_DIR}; fi
     if [ ! -d ${SOFTWARE_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${SOFTWARE_DIR}; fi
    
     if [ ! -d ${DYN_DIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${DYN_DIR}; fi
     if [ ! -d ${LOGDIR} ]; then mkdir -p ${LOGDIR}; fi
    
    # Remove old files
    rm -f ${RESTOREFILE_DIR}/*
    rm -f ${BACKUPLOG_DIR}/*
    rm -f ${SOFTWARE_DIR}/*
    
    echo "${JOBNAME}: software backup of ${ORA_SID} begun on ´date +\"%c\"´ " 
    >> ${BACKUPLOGFILE}
    } 
    
    
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    # funct_get_vars(): Get environment variables
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    funct_get_vars(){
    ORA_HOME=´sed /#/d ${ORATABDIR}|grep -i ${ORA_SID}|nawk -F ":" '{print $2}'´
    ORA_BASE=´echo ${ORA_HOME}|nawk -F "/" '{for (i=2; i<=NF-2; i++)
     print "/"$i}'´
    ORACLE_BASE=´echo $ORA_BASE|tr -d " "´
    init_file=$ORA_HOME/dbs/init$ORA_SID.ora
    ORACLE_HOME=${ORA_HOME}; export ORACLE_HOME
    ORACLE_SID=${ORA_SID}; export ORACLE_SID
    
    if [ x$ORA_HOME = 'x' ]; then
      echo "SOFTWAREBACKUP_FAIL: Can't get ORACLE_HOME from oratab for 
    $ORA_SID"|
    tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
      exit 1
    fi
    
    if [ ! -f $init_file ]; then
      echo "SOFTWAREBACKUP_FAIL: int$ORA_SID.ora does not exist in 
    ORACLE_HOME/dbs. Used by funct_startup_n to start database"|tee -a 
    ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
      exit 1
    fi
    } 
    
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    # funct_chk_unix_command_status(): Check the exit status of Unix command
    #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
    funct_chk_unix_command_status() {
     if [ $? != 0 ]; then
      echo "´date´" |tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
      echo "SOFTWAREBACKUP_FAIL: ${1}"| tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
      exit 1
     fi
    } 
    
    ############################################################
    ##            MAIN             
    ############################################################   
    NARG=$#
    ORA_SID=$1
    ORA_OWNER=$2
    
    # Set environment variables 
    BACKUPDIR="/u02/${ORA_SID}/software" 
    ORATABDIR=/etc/oratab
    TOOLS="/u01/oracomn/admin/my_dba"
    
    DYN_DIR="${TOOLS}/DYN_FILES"
    LOGDIR="${TOOLS}/localog"
    JOBNAME="orasoftware"
    
    echo "Preparing to make software backup of ${ORA_SID}" 
    
        funct_chk_parm
        funct_chk_bkup_dir
        funct_get_vars
        funct_shutdown_i
        funct_verify_shutdown
        funct_software_bkup
        funct_startup_n
    echo "${ORA_SID}, Software Backup Completed successfully on ´date +\"%c\"´ " 
    |tee -a ${BACKUPLOGFILE} >> ${LOGFILE}
    
    ######## END MAIN #########################

    Oracle Software Backup Script under Unix Checklist

    • In the main function, set correct values for BACKUPDIR, ORATABDIR, and TOOLS variables highlighted in the software backup script. The default location of ORATABDIR is different for each flavor of Unix.

    • Check for the existence of the SID in the oratab file. If not already there, you must add the instance.

    • If your Oracle software directory structure does not follow OFA guidelines, set ORA_BASE and ORA_HOME manually in funct_get_vars().

    Pass SID and OWNER as parameters to the program:

    • funct_software_bkup() This function tars the software directories of ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_BASE and compresses the output using the compress command. Here, we are assuming that the Oracle software is installed using OFA (optimal Flexible Architecture) guidelines. If not, you have to manually set ORA_BASE and ORA_HOME in the funct_get_vars() function. 'nohup' commands submit the tar command at the server.

    • main() If the database is running, it shuts down the database and starts backing up the software directories. When the backup is complete, it restarts the database.

    Troubleshooting and status check:

    The important thing here is that the backup log file defined by BACKUPLOGFILE contains detailed information about each step of the backup process. This is a very good place to start investigating why a backup has failed or for related errors. This file will also have the start and end time of backup.

    A single line about the success or failure of backup is appended to SID.log file every time backup is performed. This file is located under the directory defined by the LOGDIR variable. The messages for a software backup are 'SOFTWAREBACKUP_FAIL', if the software backup failed, and 'Software Backup Completed', successfully', if the backup completes successfully.

    Restoring Oracle Software

    The steps to restore the software are as follows:

    1. Shutdown database.

    2. Use restore file from the backup to restore the directories.

    3. Start up the database.

    The restore command in the restore file first does a zcat (uncompress and cat) of the output file and passes it to tar for extraction. For example,

    zcat ora_home.tar.Z | tar xvlpf - /oracle/ora81
    
    ora_home.tar.Z:     File to extract
    /oracle/ora81:     Destination directory

    For More Information

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    This was first published in June 2003

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