Relational online analytical processing (ROLAP) is a form of online analytical processing (OLAP) that performs dynamic multidimensional analysis of data stored in a relational database rather than in a multidimensional database (which is usually considered the OLAP standard).
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Data processing may take place within the database system, a mid-tier server, or the client. In a two-tiered architecture, the user submits a Structure Query Language (SQL) query to the database and receives back the requested data. In a three-tiered architecture, the user submits a request for multidimensional analysis and the ROLAP engine converts the request to SQL for submission to the database. Then the operation is performed in reverse: the engine converts the resulting data from SQL to a multidimensional format before it is returned to the client for viewing. As is typical of relational databases, some queries are created and stored in advance. If the desired information is available, then that query will be used, which saves time. Otherwise, the query is created on the fly from the user request. Microsoft Access's PivotTable is an example of a three-tiered architecture.
Since ROLAP uses a relational database, it requires more processing time and/or disk space to perform some of the tasks that multidimensional databases are designed for. However, ROLAP supports larger user groups and greater amounts of data and is often used when these capacities are crucial, such as in a large and complex department of an enterprise.