In Oracle-speak, archiving refers to the process of copying transactions to a specific directory (called your Archive Destination) so that you can use the record of these transactions to recover all of your data since the last time you took a backup.
As a more generic term, archiving is removing application data from the database to make room for more data and copying that data to some other location. At the same time, the application has the ability to access the archived data or there is a process to restore the archived data to access it with the application.
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