The contents of the dump file depend on the parameters you use. If you specify just the TABLES parameter, then...
the table you specify along with any indexes and triggers on that table are exported. If you specify the OWNER parameter, then the entire contents of that schema (tables, indexes, views, triggers, stored procedures, sequences, functions, etc.) will be in the dump file. If you specify the FULL parameter, then the entire contents of the database will be present.
You can modify the contents slightly with parameters like the INDEXES parameter. Specifying TABLES=my_table and INDEXES=N will dump the MY_TABLE table contents to the dump file, but will not include indexes. The TRIGGERS parameter can be set to N to stop trigger definitions from being dumped. Statistics can also be present in your dump file depending on the setting of the STATISTICS parameter.
I highly recommend reading the Oracle Utilities guide for more information on all of the export and import parameters.
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